On Love and Collective Responsibility

On Love and Collective Responsibility

by Yehuda HaKohen, visionmag.org

Shoftim deals primarily with statutes pertaining to Israel’s leadership. Because leadership is not a position of honor for the individual but rather a burden of responsibility for the welfare of the Jewish people, the Torah sets down specific guidelines in order to steer our leaders towards attaining their full potential. “It shall be that when he sits on the throne of his kingdom, he shall write for himself two copies of this Torah in a book, from before the Kohanim, the Levi’im. It shall be with him, and he shall read from it all the days of his life, so that he will learn to fear HaShem, his G-D, to observe all the words of this Torah and these decrees, to perform them, so that his heart not become haughty over his brethren and not turn from the commandment right or left, so that he will prolong years over his kingdom, he and his sons amid Israel.” (D’varim 17:18-20) A melekh (generally translated into English as “king”) is commanded to write and read his own Torah in order to prevent his position of leadership from creating within him a feeling of arrogance toward his brothers. By delving into the deeper secrets of Torah, a melekh can gain a higher awareness that although we may each play unique roles in Israel’s national life, we are all in fact parts of a greater whole and no man can truly reign supreme over others. Even learning the Torah on a surface level enables a leader to understand the past failures of his people in order that he personally strive to correct these shortcomings and lead the Jewish people in fulfilling our collective destiny. The ideal Torah concept of melekh differs greatly from the monarchs who have ruled over other peoples. A melekh is the concentrated expression of the collective Israeli soul – Knesset Yisrael – that manifests itself in our world through millions of bodies revealed in space and time as individual Jews. The melekh does not actually rule over Israel but rather embodies the mission and aspirations of his people to the extent that he becomes a microcosm of the entire Hebrew Nation and his personal identity is absorbed into Israel’s collective national identity. On B’reishit 36:3, Rashi quotes our Sages as teaching that just like a single person getting married or a gentile naturalizing into Am Yisrael, one who rises to high office has his previous transgressions wiped clean. The Maharal of Prague elaborates in his Gur Aryeh on Rashi’s commentary that “The reason for all three is that they become new human beings… a prince who rises to high office – before he was an individual person and now, so to speak, he ‘is’ his entire people.” Rashi also understands the verse “And Israel sent emissaries…” (Bamidbar 21:21) to teach: “When the melekh (in this case Moshe) sends, it is as if the entire nation sends. That is why when a leader takes power, he is a new person and his previous sins are forgiven.” As is clearly exhibited in the behaviour of David, a true melekh leads Israel not by behaving with arrogance but by displaying greater passion and fervour in serving HaShem. “David danced with all [his] strength before HaShem; David was girded in a linen tunic. David and the entire House of Israel brought up the Ark of HaShem with loud, joyous sound, and the sound of the shofar.” (Shmuel II 6:14-15) David remains the paradigm of the ideal melekh, setting the ultimate standard for all future Hebrew leadership. “His [the melekh’s] heart is the heart of the entire congre